Slowing down the aging process of the skin is the basic problem in cosmetics. Until recently it was assumed that the skin begins to age at the age of 40, when the first pronounced wrinkles appear. And cosmetics primarily fought against wrinkles. It is now quite evident that the aging process of the skin begins long before any visible signs appear and begins at the cellular level for about thirty years. The researchers currently have a great deal of biomedical scientific knowledge about the structure and function of the skin, oxidative stress and its causes, intracellular mechanisms of adaptation and repair, the quality and intensity of intercellular interactions.
It is believed for todaythat skin aging is not just about visible signs: wrinkles, uneven pigmentation, gravitational sagging of the skin, dryness, etc. These are primarily cellular and tissue-related signs of skin aging, changes in subtle processes in the epidermis and dermis.
Aging mechanisms influence the most important cell organelles:
- DNA- the most important element of the storage and implementation of genetic information;
- Mitochondria- a unique organelle that supplies the cell with energy and ensures its survival in difficult conditions;
- Cell membrane- Regulator of signal transmission from outside and selective permeability of substances
With every external impact on the skin, complex processes are set in motion in the skin cells - they exchange information and coordinate a common reaction to external challenges. These processes are very active in youth. But with age they fade, there is a certain imbalance of internal processes and the skin begins to age. This begs the question of how to effectively help skin resist aging at young, mature and old age.
All the theories describing the mechanisms of skin aging, and there are more than 300 of them, can be divided into two broad groups - aging based on internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) factors. Endogenous aging is caused by information encoded in our DNA and there is still no way to influence this aspect. Exogenous aging is the aggregate result of the accumulating effects of aggressive environmental factors, including ultraviolet and infrared radiation, ozone, urban smog, cigarette smoke, etc. At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, there was a noticeable shift in the study of aging due to external factors. Now no one doubts that external factors determine 60-80% of the total volume of aging (data for facial skin). Ultraviolet is considered the most dangerous.
The signs of aging in numbers
Age-related changes are mostly external and signs of aging can be seen. Here is a list of the most common skin changes and what they look like. Research over the past few years has made it possible to calculate many of the aging processes in numbers.
- The collagen content in the dermis, which is necessary for the firmness of the skin, decreases by 1% every year from the age of 30.
- After 40 years, the skin becomes 1% thinner every year.
- A skin cell restores 10 to 100, 000 mutations in its DNA in a day, and 2 hours of exposure to the sun produce up to 1 million mutations.
- 15 minutes of sunbathing use up the skin's own antioxidant reserves (mainly vitamins C and E) by 70-90%, and regeneration takes at least 2 hours.
- Of all proteins that are synthesized in the cell, 40% are produced with errors - an uninterrupted operation of the cellular mechanisms for its utilization and processing is necessary.
- In total, the body contains around 15 g of hyaluronic acid, of which 10 g falls on the skin. A complete renewal of all hyaluronic acid takes place in the body in three (! ) Days - every failure of the work of the skin cells for the synthesis of hyaluronic acid becomes a micro-disaster for the skin.
- Decreased elasticity of the stratum corneum and epidermis. With age, the stratum corneum becomes thicker, and the upper layer, on the contrary, thinner (from 30 to 70 years - twice). The firmness of the skin decreases and the skin becomes dull.
- Reduction of the amount of water in the stratum corneum. With increasing age, the water content of the skin changes: 75-70% up to 25 years to 63-65% in older people. The skin becomes dry, less dense and the skin becomes more sensitive.
- Increased skin pigmentation. Over time, age spots appear on the skin due to the negative effects of the sun.
- With increasing age, the activity of the sebum glands decreases. This makes the skin drier and more susceptible to free radicals.
The main reason for skin aging is a decrease in the rate of repair
All skin functions and regeneration processes are retained in humans into old age. The problem is that their speed slows down. If the young skin can respond to a negative impulse in 12 hours and stop the negative effects, the older skin needs 30 hours. Thus, it is evident that in an elderly person, the recovery processes are extremely slow. This means that the intact skin of a young and an older person is equally effective as a barrier and protection. The differences are clearly noticeable when the skin is damaged and the destroyed structures and mechanisms need to be restored. Considering that our skin is under constant aggression from external factors, as we age the snowball of "untreated" destruction and damage grows more intensely. That is, mature skin does not have time to deal with damage, and it accumulatesand appear as external signs of aging, that is, all signs of aging are "untreated" skin lesions.
Stages of age-related changes in skin and care properties
Young skin is differenthigh content of own "youth molecules", high intensity of the recovery processes. Young skin is much denser than mature skin, it is more elastic, its structural fibers, collagen and elastin, are organized. The cell renewal rate is approximately 28 days. The first age-related changes in the skin appear from the age of 25. Therefore, the main focus of cosmetics for this age group is on protection and prevention. It includes protection from ultraviolet radiation, support of the water and lipid balance of the skin, the mandatory use of various antioxidants.
Mature skin is differenta decrease in the content of "youth molecules" and a slowdown in the recovery processes. Everyday stress becomes more traumatic and destructive for the skin. Outwardly, signs of aging appear in the form of wrinkles, crow's feet around the eyes, sagging skin on the cheekbones and chin. Here anti-aging cosmetics should not only offer protection, but also support their own processes (protective and care cosmetics). The use of substances to maintain cell life (protection of cell membranes, DNA and mitochondria), to promote the synthesis of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid is topical. It is necessary to strengthen and maintain a high intensity of intercellular communication with the help of regulatory peptides and growth factors.
In old age,massive deficit in recovery mechanisms. The renewal rate of the skin cells after 55 years is greatly reduced and is already 3-4 months (28 days before the age of 25). This happens against an unfavorable background of already accumulated "untreated" injuries. The signs of aging become stronger - the number and depth of wrinkles increase, the skin becomes drier and duller. Anti-aging cosmetics of this age protect, support and replaceLost. Active ingredients from both earlier and own age groups can be used - bioflavonoids with phytoestrogenic activity (to replace the level of one's own estrogens), cholesterol in a special ratio with ceramides and fatty acids to fill the lipid barrier, intradermal moisturizers, anti-inflammatory and vascular stabilizersComponents.
Each of us is different. The processes that take place in our skin are, however, determined the same for everyone by nature. Including the aging process of the skin. At each age, the degree of manifestation of certain changes is different. Take a closer look at yourself. You may notice some changes today. So it is time to act! At every stage of life, it is important to choose beauty care products based on the age and needs of the skin.
Skin care products and special treatments will help you slow down the aging process of your skin and keep your skin looking youthful for years. With the abundance of cosmetics and procedures available today, women of all ages can choose the right anti-aging products for themselves.