A closer look: the eye area

Girl with smooth skin around eyes after using rejuvenation methods

When it comes to determining whether a face is attractive or tired, the eyes are paramount. An experienced eye can immediately determine all the mysteries of our life and heredity just by looking at our eyes. From a medical point of view, our bodies go through a long series of changes as we age, and it is the delicate areas around the eyes that are the first to show signs of these changes.

For some, these signs appear earlier, for others later, but many of us are wondering: what are the factors responsible for the appearance of wrinkles and drooping eyelids, and what can be done to join the league of owners of eternally young eyes?

Unravel the mystery of aging eyes

In addition to being an odd, difficult-to-pronounce word, blepharochalasia is a medical term for the appearance of excess skin around the eyes or the effect of heavy eyelids. This is a fairly common problem caused by the normal aging process, fatigue, allergies, slow lymphatic drainage, or a number of other conditions.

What is the peculiarity of the skin around the eyes and why is it so delicate?

1. Aging

The skin around the eyes is seven to ten times thinner and more sensitive than the skin on the rest of the face and body in general. As we age, skin becomes even thinner due to the loss of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid (which keeps skin moisturized). Tender skin is stretched under the action of the fat body, which leads to noticeable bags under the eyes. The prominence of infraorbital fat is considered a common manifestation of the aging process. In addition, aging and a number of other factors affect the weakening of the muscles, which only worsens the condition of the bags under the eyes.

2. Genetic causes

Researchers recently conducted a study to identify the risk factors that lead to droopy eyelids, with a particular focus on genetic factors. They studied two groups of people. The first group consisted of 5578 unrelated individuals. 17. 8% of the participants in the group had moderate to severe droopy eyelids. In the second group, there were 2186 people who were twins, and 61% of the participants in this group had inherited droopy eyelids. These results support the fact that the most common cause of droopy eyelids is heredity.

3. Sebaceous glands

The periorbital area is drier because there are fewer oil glands compared to the skin on the rest of the face. As a result, their lipid barrier is poorer and they are more prone to developing expression lines.

4. Skull

Prominent cheekbones and deep-set eyes. This is the cause of hollows under the eyes, the shadow of which creates the illusion that the skin under the eyes is darker when in reality it is not. With age, the facial bones of the skull change, and this situation only gets worse.

5. Translucent capillaries

Dark circles under the eyes are actually the result of hemoglobin oxidation. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells, it contains a heme group whose iron atoms bind oxygen molecules.

This is how red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body and take any waste products with them for destruction. When oxygen molecules attach to the heme group, red blood cells turn red. When oxygen molecules are separated and hemoglobin is oxidized, red blood cells turn blue. Because of this, dark circles appear under the eyes. When red blood cells are visible through the capillaries around the eyes, enzymes in the body interfere with the movement of the red blood cells and oxidize them, turning them blue. When this happens, the waste is released into the bloodstream and carried throughout the body. Translucent capillaries can also cause swelling or fluid buildup in the body, making the face look puffy.

6. Toxins in the body

Dark circles under the eyes can indicate problems sleeping or the presence of toxins in the kidneys or liver. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, the upper part of the eye and the area just below the eyes is the kidney area. Swelling and fluid build-up in this area is a sign that the body is over-hydrated (watery and swollen circles, with a blue tint) or overloaded with mucus (greasy and swollen, with a yellow tint). White or blue circles under the eyes indicate tiredness or exhaustion. A yellow tint indicates poor functioning of the liver and gallbladder. When the gallbladder isn't up to the task of processing and breaking down fats in the body, it can contribute to the appearance of milia (tiny white-yellow bumps) around the eyes in some people.

7. Frequent eye movements

The skin suffers from frequent blinking and facial expressions (e. g. smiling), also known as expression lines.

8. Iron

Iron can be another factor. Red blood cells need iron atoms to bind oxygen molecules to themselves. When iron levels in your body are low, red blood cells cannot bind to oxygen, and bluish circles appear under the eyes.

9. Lifestyle

Puffy eyes are another problem that can occur regardless of age or gender. It is caused by a high-salt diet, smoking, or alcohol. An unhealthy lifestyle also causes dark circles under the eyes and early wrinkles.

If you want to know how your eyes change as you age, look at your parents. This will give you a clear idea of whether you will have a large fat pad under your eyes. But you can try to change the genetic plan with the help of aesthetic medicine.

Other causes of deterioration of the skin in the periorbital area can be: stress, malnutrition or malnutrition, too much sleep or lack of sleep, excessive use of cosmetics (remember to wash them off every night), too frequent washing with products that damage the skindry skin (avoid alcohol in cosmetics) and damage from sunlight - photoaging.

Treatments currently available

Wrinkles, bags under the eyes, dark circles and drooping eyelids are not only unsightly, they can also cause vision problems and headaches (from constantly straining to keep your eyes open). There are many surgical and non-surgical treatments for tired, sagging, or aging eyelid skin.

The choice of eye area rejuvenation method depends on the type of condition we are dealing with. For example, the aging skin of the upper eyelids may need to be tightened due to excess skin and muscle weakness. The lower eyelids may require treatment for swelling and thinning skin, as well as fat sac removal. Dark circles under the eyes require separate treatments.

Before and after using injectable fillers - reducing dark circles

Volume and moisture: bulking agents

The easiest and most effective way to smooth the skin around the eyes is with injectable fillers. They give the skin a natural look and help against sunken eyes. Fillers also improve the condition of dark circles by 15-20%, but they are practically useless in the fight against obesity. There are several types of specially formulated hyaluronic acid gels that reduce wrinkles around the eyes and add volume and hydration to the skin.

Before and after laser surgery - rejuvenation of the skin around the eyes

Laser Skin Rejuvenation

Laser surgery is a non-invasive way to tighten the skin around the eyes. CO2 laser rejuvenation or Fraxel is a very gentle method to gradually restore the youthfulness of the eyelid skin, which can be used in parallel with fillers or surgical techniques.

Lasers at the microscopic level cause thermal injuries to the skin, to which the skin responds by rapidly healing and shedding old damaged cells. Old cells are replaced by new, younger cells. The CO2 laser can also improve the skin's elasticity and texture, and reduce fine or deep wrinkles, acne scars and freckles.

Before and after blepharoplasty - removal of the fat body under the eyes and skin tightening

Surgical methods: blepharoplasty

When non-surgical methods do not provide the desired result, blepharoplasty (or eyelid reduction) is used. This procedure is a very effective way to achieve the desired look.

The surgeon makes tiny incisions in the eyelid and under the eyes, removes excess fat and tightens the skin, and then stitches the incisions shut. By removing the fat pad under the eyes, puffiness is significantly reduced. Surgery can also remove drooping (drooping) eyelids, but it won't help dark circles or droopy eyebrows—these issues need to be addressed separately.

Blepharoplasty is the only way to remove a protruding fat pad, especially in overweight people (excess fat accumulates under the eyes in such patients). But non-surgical methods do an excellent job of tightening skin, wrinkles and hollows under the eyes.